Lesotho has the highest TB incidence in the world, the second-highest HIV coinfection rate of adult TB cases in the world, as well as one of the highest MDR-TB rates. Lesotho has sent massive numbers of migrant workers into South African mines during the past century but these numbers have dropped significantly in recent years. During the 1980s and 1990s, according to The Employment Bureau of Africa Limited (TEBA), nearly 100,000 men from Lesotho worked as miners in the South African gold mines. As of 2012, this number was estimated at 35,000. There are also an estimated 2,300 miners working domestically.

While the actual number of miners from Lesotho working in the South African gold mines may be higher, it is clear that these individuals and their families are at greater risk of both TB and HIV. Given their high levels of mobility and the limited coordination among countries, there are concerns with both missing cases and adherence to treatment.